عنوان مقاله [English]
Purpose: This paper presents techniques used for identifying dyes and pigments used in inks and illuminations of several old Quranic manuscripts. Knowledge of the kind of dyes and pigments used in producing old manuscripts helps the choice of appropriate cleaning methods and conservation treatments.
Method/Research Design: Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (ATR-FTIR), Raman laser spectroscopy were used for the characterization of the paint layers and inks of the selected samples taken from 6 illuminated manuscripts, all belonging to the Safavid era (15-16 century AD).
Findings: Analyses of sixteen samples taken from the six manuscripts showed that lapis lazuli, indigo, azurite and lead white in blue colors, madder, cinnabar, red lead in red colors, and verdigris and lead white in green colors, were used. All of the pigments and dyes used in manuscripts were common in the Safavid era and were mentioned in literature. Therefore the authenticity of these manuscripts is established.