عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Owing to ambiguous wording about the territories, the treaty of Gulistan, which signed aTelr Ion-yesr wars (1803 - 1813) between Iran and Russia, led to the second period of war between the two countries in 1825. Russia had the upper hand and the war was to its advantage. Therefore, with the mediation of Great Britain, Iran was forced to conclude peace on ignominious terms by the treaty of Turkmanchai on 22 February 1828. By this treaty, Aras River was determined to be the frontier between the two countries, Iran had to cede some of its districts and provinces, besides paying a heavy indemnity, and to grant the exclusive right of waiships traffic in Caspian Sea and many other concessions to Russia. In return Russia recognized Abbas Mirza and his heirs to succeed to the throne of Iran, Although detrimental effects of these wars and Turkmanchai treaty are so extensive that can not be described in one article, the author irys to outline a part of (he Russian oppressions in Iran.