عنوان مقاله [English]

Qajar Military Clashes with Middle East Khans

نویسنده [English]

  • seyedali karimi

چکیده [English]

Iran territory had divided in Northwestern, Northeastern, and East, because of the ruling kings' inefficiency. As a result, many parts of this territory were separated from it. A direct and long struggle between Iranians and Russians ended with the Treaty of Gulestan and Turkamanchay. Russians prepared the way for accepting the Akhal Treaty by supporting Middle East tribes and Khans' attacks to Iran, especially Khorasan. The author describes Central Asia Khans and tribes' historical geography in brief, and reviews the battles between Iranian army and Khiveh Khanates and Turkmans, on the basis of existing resources. He explains Marve battle, the reasons of Qajar armies' defeat, and the results of this failure. He also describes the faiths of ten-thousands of Iranian prisoners of war, military and civilian, in Middle East and Iran Northeast­ern insecurity