عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The victory of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the era of Mozaffar ad-Din Shah-e Qajar was one of the greatest political and religious events in Iran’s contemporary history. Shi'a clergymen played a key role in this movement. They created a new range of views about the Constitution's political structure. These new viewpoints were based on the great heritage of the political Fiqh of Shi'a. Among these viewpoints, a group of clergymen presented the theory of Legitimate Constitution and tried to present a new reading of Shi’a political thoughts on the basis of Shi’a Fiqh. These new political thoughts discussed the criterions of legitimacy or illegitimacy of a government formed on the basis of that constitution. The theory of Legitimate Constitution aimed to maintain the ties of Iran’s Muslim community with the Islamic faith, and to counter the influence of Western secular thought.
Sheikh Fazlollah Noori is one of the most prominent clergymen in this movement, whose religious ideas about Iran’s Constitutional Revolution are analyzed theoretically and historically in this study. The main subject of the present study is to answer why, and under which historical circumstances and religious requirements, a group of Pro-Constitution clergymen - and ahead of them, Sheikh Fazlollah Noori - eventually turned against the Constitutional Movement and began to plan for Legitimate Constitution theory based on the Shi’a political Fiqh. To answer this question, Sheikh Fazlollah Noori’s own writings are studied. The main hypothesis of this study is that Sheikh Fazlollah Noori believed there were some basic contradictions between the Constitution and the fundamental principles of Islam. This caused his opposition against the Constitution to the point that he lost his life through this opposition. Less attention is paid to this subject by the scholars and historians who have done research on the Constitution, especially those who were against Sheikh Fazlollah and in favor of the Constitution.