عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Oppression and injustice on the part of the local hereditary rulers of Estar Abad caused dissatisfaction among the inhabitants of that state and led them to Constitutionalism. Constitutionalism, which was seen as an appropriate way to oppose oppressive rulers, was first introduced in Ramiyan, Fenderesk and Katul, through direct resistance to the despotic rulers of Estar Abad. Meanwhile, Russians came to Ashuradeh. They monopolized the commercial and economic activities of the state of Estar-Abad and violated the rights of its inhabitants. The aforementioned facts, together with the incompetence of rulers and the government led traders, scholars and local chiefs to institute a provincial society for governing the state of Estar-Abad. Turkmen residents of Estar-Abad were in a chaotic situation due to the corruptness of the central government and the Russians’ desire for greater power. They managed to move towards peace by improving their role in the constitutional revolution, which enabled them to achieve parliamentary representation, particularly after their participation in public protests against the bombing of the parliament and against the takeover of Tehran by Bakhtiarian forces.