عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Even after signing Golestan Treaty in 1228 LY, border discrepancies between Iran and Russia remained unresolved and sometimes Russian forces attacked our soil. In the same year, Gougche City was occupied by Russia and Iranian courtiers decided to counterattack, which led to second war between Iran and Russia and continued by 1243. Due to consecutive defeats of Iranian Army, King Fathali Shah and Crown Prince Abbas Mitya gave in to Russians, signed Turkmanchai peace treaty and accepted Russians’ backbreaking conditions. Russians pursued their encroachments even in Mohammad Shah, Naser A1 Din Shah and other Qajar Kings, and for instance in Naser A1 Din Shah reign, they forced Iran to withdraw its own borders in Akhal and other regions of Turkistan and fishing privilege was granted to them by Iranians completely. Russian ships gained access to Anzali Marsh and border rivers. Privileges to open Esteghrazi Bank and to use Iran’s forests were given to a Russian citizen. In 1317 Solar year, Iran yielded to its first foreign debt from Russia, 22.5 million Manats, in which Russians accepted customs offices in northern parts of Iran as a mortgage for 75 years. During Mohammad Ali Shah and Ahmad Shah kingdoms, Iran- Russia relations were under the influence of Constitutionalism Movement, Soviet Union’s October Revolution, WW1 and so forth.After Russia Revolution in 1917, Iran and Russia signed another treaty, Mawadat, in which Iran’s debts to tsar kings had been written off. All other privileges, received during tsar tenure in Russia, including sailing in Iranian waters and capitulation were annulled. Mawadat Treaty composed of an introduction and 26 articles. It was signed in Moscow five days after Reza Khan came to power in a coup on 26th of February, 1921 and opened a new chapter in Iran, Russia relations.