عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Purpose: Varieties of styles of writing digits in Qajar records for Hijri Calendar are examined to show changes that occurred in the writing the digit zero (0) and reasons behind such changes. Changes noticed are compared with the styles used in arithmetic text of the same period. The purpose has been to provide evidence for the style of writing numbers in scientific texts as well as properties the digit zero has, and ways of locating it in such texts and its functions. Method: Data was collected from a thousand dated records randomly selected from within a collection of records produced over 140 years (1795-1925) in four regions of Iran (Central, Fars, Northern region, and Northwestern). Dates of records and classification of writing styles was carried out using statistical techniques. Comparative method was used and library resources were consulted. Findings: Four writing styles were identified in the four regions. Written forms with some variation were seen in all regions except northwestern (due to limited access to records). The function of zero in arithmetic texts in the era follows mathematical logic. Such texts discuss the properties and characteristics of zero, its function, and the possibility of its omission or addition into a certain string of numbers. The only case in which the rank of zero was shifted without change in its value was found in one such text examined. Variations in the styles of writing dates of scripture is caused by changes and manipulations of zero, which in turn is caused by scribes' own styles and tastes, as well as the need for speed-writing, broken-writing, and possibly carelessness, and in some cases lack of space on the page.