عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
This paper studies the visual features of newspapers of the Qajar Era and compares these features in two periods i.e. lithography and letterpress in order to understand the impact of the type of printing on the graphics of these works. In this regard, after reviewing the samples available in the National Library and the Encyclopedia Centre, 60 newspapers of the Qajar Era were chosen based on criteria such as duration of publication and also similarity to current styles in press graphics. Content analysis method was employed in this research in order to achieve reliable and repeatable results from selected plans. For this purpose, a questionnaire was designed to study different aspects of the newspapers such as: content, structure, images, writings, tables, lineation, direction and texture. The questionnaire data was analyzed using matrices. Finally, in addition to authorized recognition of early newspapers in Iran, it was concluded that the type of printing (lithography – letterpress) affected the graphics of the newspapers. After substituting linotype machines for lithography facilities, we observe less aesthetic and decorative elements; creative letter designs in titles, texts and epigraphs; texts written in different directions; and images. However, letterpress pages have better established and more regulated layouts in comparison to lithographs.